Category Archives: Literary Devices

How the Dog Days of Summer Can Supercharge Your Descriptive Writing


The Dog Days of Summer—
days when heat and humidity reign,
sizzling July days that melt into August. 

Don’t waste them allowing your writing to languish. Instead, study the descriptive paragraphs, sentences and phrases found in summer poetry. Think about how words transform into specific moods and pictures. Then apply what you learn to your works in progress.

Here are a few examples.

2de14353abcf3a19678609e6a294006e--stephen-king-quotes-stephen-kingsA stanza from John Koethe’s poem, “Sally’s Hair”

It’s like living in a light bulb, with the leaves
Like filaments and the sky a shell of thin, transparent glass
Enclosing the late heaven of a summer day, a canopy
Of incandescent blue above the dappled sunlight golden on the grass.

(Copyright © 2006 John Koethe.)


9781543294002_p0_v1_s550x406.jpgDiscover how Phillip Lopate uses a loaf of bread to describe layered city sounds in “The Last Slow Days of Summer” .

I’m lying on the grass, listening to city sounds.
They come to me in three-dimensional form,
Like a loaf of Wonder Bread. Baby carriages squeak
Near the middle. Cars humming through Central Park,
Somewhere near the back of the loaf.
What sound would be the end-piece, the round brown sliver?
The unzipping of airline bags.
Or a glove thwacked
By a rookie pitcher who falls apart
In the eighth inning.

(“The Last Slow Days of Summer” from At the End of the Day: Selected Poems and an Introductory Essay, copyright © 2009 by Phillip Lopate.)


 In his “Summer Song” William Carlos Williams describes the moon fading on a summer morning and then adds himself to the scene.

if-writers-block-is-staring.gifWanderer moon
smiling a
faintly ironical smile
at this
brilliant, dew-moistened
summer morning,—
a detached
sleepily indifferent
smile, a
wanderer’s smile,—
if I should
buy a shirt
your color and
put on a necktie
where would they carry me?

(This poem is in the public domain.)



And, finally, study poet Mark Strand’s character description in “My Mother on an Evening in Late Summer”:

When the moon appears
and a few wind-stricken barns stand out
in the low-domed hills
and shine with a light
that is veiled and dust-filled
and that floats upon the fields,
my mother, with her hair in a bun,
her face in shadow, and the smoke
from her cigarette coiling close
to the faint yellow sheen of her dress,
stands near the house
and watches the seepage of late light
down through the sedges,
the last gray islands of cloud
taken from view, and the wind
ruffling the moon’s ash-colored coat
on the black bay.

From Mark Strand: Selected Poems, by Mark Strand, published by Atheneum. Copyright © 1979 by Mark Strand.

Make time during these Dog Days to read and study more summer poems. You’ll find them online at:

graphicstock-poems-word-on-metal-pointer_SPPlyPHAdub_thumbThe Poetry Foundation

The Academy of American Poets

Poem Hunter

A reminder: In narrative writing use descriptive language sparingly and with good judgement. Keep it in your writer’s “toolbox” as a technique for advancing plot, character and theme.


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Filed under Creativity, descriptive writing, Inspiration, Literary Devices, motivation, Observation, Poetry, Summer, Uncategorized, words, Writing craft, Writing Tips

Aposiopesis, Enthymeme, Portmanteau . . . What Are They?

shutterstock_106059710-620x789All writers have a style, but most writers are not aware of, nor can they name, ALL of the literary devices they use as they write. There are the obvious—those with familiar names:

simile, metaphor, alliteration, hyperbole,

and others not as familiar.

For example, if you wrote:

“Sophia, don’t you dare leave me or I’ll—”

you would be using a literary device called aposiopesis. It means to leave a sentence unfinished to allow the reader to determine its meaning.

If you wrote:

“Your fingerprints were all over the knife, and that proves you killed her.”

you would have made use of a device called enthymeme— meaning to persuade readers by using implied arguments.

Are you familiar with these?

never_ever_ever_give_up___tipo_by_hamdanhasan-d688epdEpizeuxis: words or phrases that repeat in a quick succession for emphasis. This device draws the reader’s focus to a specific thought, idea or emotion.

Stop it! Stop it! That’s all you ever do, apologize, apologize apologize!”

Portmanteau: the linking and blending of two or more words to form a new word that shares the same meanings as the original words.

“Jen, please, can we have Thanksgiving dinner at our house? Last year, your sister served tofurkey and broccoflower!”

(The website, features a word mixer to help you have fun creating your own portmanteaus.)

1426_5-tips-for-getting-caught-up-on-your-legendary-cloakTmesis: dividing a phrase or word into its components by inserting another word/phrase in the middle of that phrase or word.

“How did I end up here? Well, that’s a whole nother story.”

How about the following literary devices? Do you know what they mean? You will find the answers, along with an extensive list, on the website, Literary Devices.

  • Anthropomorphism
  • Personification
  • Zoomorphism
  • Hypophora
  • Snark
  • Chiasmus

Until next time . . . happy writing!



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Filed under Literary Devices, Trivia, Uncategorized, words